This site links to information potentially useful in helping a viewer understand the Second Amendment, the two court cases that became the 2008 U.S. Supreme Court decision District of Columbia v. Heller, and issues related to that Amendment and court decision.

The following are links to that information, by category, but not necessarily in date order:

1. Early historical documents: Mayflower compact, 1620; English Bill of Rights, 1689; Declaration of Independence, 1776; Articles of Confederation, 1781; U.S. Constitution, 1789; Constitutional Amendments, 1791 and 1868

2. Heller related documents: Opinions, Amici Briefs, U.S. Supreme Court cases and other court cases mentioned in Parker v. District of Columbia, 311 F.Supp.2d 103, 109 (2004); Parker v. District of Columbia, 478 F.3d 370, 401 (2007); and District of Columbia v. Heller (2008).

3. Arms and Public Policy: Compiled by Steven C. Markoff (chair of the A-Mark Foundation) between 2014 and 2019: The 1619 American law restricting the sale of private arms; 65 restrictions on arms in place on December 15, 1791; Five laws in force on Dec. 15, 1791, that required individuals to have or carry arms, independent of the militia and the military; Ten laws requiring individuals to have and carry arms, no longer valid as of Dec. 15, 1791; 45 U.S. Supreme Court cases related to restrictions on arms; A 2015 comparison of guns deaths per capita in U.S. States vs. the number of eight gun laws in those states; Post Heller views on the question of an individual right in the Second Amendment by 6 of 52 cosigners of an amicus brief filed on Sept. 3, 1999, on behalf of the United States in the 5th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals case U.S. v. Emerson.


Updated July 2019